An overwhelming majority of migraine sufferers found relief with the use of CBD oil, according to the results of a recent study. Data from a clinically validated survey showed that 86% of respondents reported a decrease in headache impact after using a cannabidiol (CBD) formulation for a 30-day trial period.
Data On CBD And Migraine Lacking
Although Axon’s study was conducted without the scientific rigor of gold-standard clinical trials, the results of the Hit-6 survey underscore the need for more research into CBD as a possible treatment for migraine sufferers around the world.
One Billion Migraine Sufferers Worldwide
Migraine is one of the world’s most prevalent neurological diseases, according to information from the Migraine Research Foundation, affecting approximately 39 million people in the U.S. and about one billion globally. Symptoms, which are often disabling, can include severe headache, dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances and severe sensitivity to light or sound. Migraine disease is commonly treated with strong pharmaceutical drugs, although with varying results.
Cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug, per the Controlled Substances Act and the Drug Enforcement Agency, indicating that it has a high potential for abuse, and medical use is prohibited [9,10]. However, state governments have utilized their powers and legalized cannabis for medical and/or legal use within the last several years. California was the first state to legalize medical cannabis back in 1996 . Still, to date, 36 states and four USA territories deem this compound for medical use, with 18 states, two territories, and the District of Colombia allowing it for recreational use . Medical societies have even incorporated cannabis use in medical management. For example, the Canadian Pain Society recommended back in 2014 that cannabis be utilized as third-line therapy for chronic pain management . Chronic pain is often a common reason for a patient to register with a medical cannabis state registry . Other uses for medical cannabis include symptom management of Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, migraines, multiple sclerosis, and seizures [4,13,14]. To utilize medical cannabis, an individual must establish care with a medical cannabis physician and have a qualifying or similar diagnosis . Florida, for example, requires that a patient have a qualifying medical condition that includes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, chronic nonmalignant pain, Crohn’s disease, epilepsy, glaucoma, human immunodeficiency virus disease/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, and terminal condition [12,15]. In addition, as defined per Florida amendment 2, similar conditions include disorders (alcoholism, anxiety, depression, diabetes, and endometriosis) that have symptoms that are common to the above qualifying conditions . Once a physician determines patient eligibility for medical cannabis use, a patient can access medical cannabis products for seven months .
Introduction and background
Cannabis has a rooted history for both medical and recreational use. Cannabis has been used since ancient times to manage various conditions, including acute pain, anxiety, cancer pain, chronic pain, depression, headaches, and migraines . It exists in forms that include: Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis, and Cannabis sativa of which contain 400 compounds . Important compounds of interest include Δ 9 ‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), flavonoids, and terpenes . THC and CBD are the major components of different medical cannabis formulations . Both CBD and THC stimulate cannabinoid (CB) receptors throughout the human body, constituting the endocannabinoid system . The endocannabinoid system consists of CB1 (central/peripheral nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral/immune tissues) receptors . CB1 receptor activation leads to decreased neurotransmission of dopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate. On the other hand, CB2 receptor activation leads to analgesia and decreased immune system function [2-4].
Medical research for medical cannabis use is sparse, given the lack of randomized control studies. Current literature is limited to case reports, case series, cell phone survey applications, and retrospective analyses. In addition, few studies document the improvement of migraine symptoms with medical cannabis use. However, two prospective trials done by Robins et al. and Aviram et al. have noted migraine improvement within their studies [16,17]. Also, there are limited studies that qualify or quantify an ideal dosage and method of cannabis use. Hence, with minimal research studies on the effectiveness of medical cannabis on different medical conditions, review papers are essential to summarize how this compound can be effective in headache and migraine management.