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ultrasound cbd extraction

Ultrasound cbd extraction

UP200Ht with Soxhlet extractor. (©Djenni et al. 2012)

Sonication applies intense shear forces and stress to the medium and releases thereby high extract yields in a very short extraction time. This means that the extraction process of active substances such as cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant can be substantially increased.
Ultrasonic extraction can be performed with a broad variety of solvents. Depending on its subsequent use, active substances from cannabis are extracted e.g. in butane, CO2, propane, etc, when the extracts are utilized for inhalation. For the preparation of extracts for oral ingestion, ethanol, cyclohexane, isopropanol, olive oil, coconut oil, etc. are preferred as solvents.
Hielscher Ultrasonics offers you the suitable extraction equipment – whether you need a small or mid-scale extractor, a pilot or an industrial system, Hielscher’s ultrasonicators meet your requirements.

Cannabinoids, terpenes and other active ingredients of the cannabis plant are extracted for manifold purposes. The ultrasonic extraction is a trusted method to gain extracts of the cannabis plant for

Power ultrasound is a proven method for efficient and reliable extraction of active compounds including herbal/ medicinal compounds, oil, proteins and bioactives (e.g. flavones, polyphenolics, anthocyanin, aroma) from botanicals, herbs, flowers and seeds.
For ultrasonic extraction, powerful ultrasound waves are coupled into the plant-solvent mixture, so that acoustic cavitation occurs. Acoustic cavitation is described as the ultrasonically caused formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in liquids.
“During cavitation, the collapse of bubbles produces intense local heating and high pressures, with very short lifetimes. In clouds of cavitating bubbles, these hot-spots have equivalent temperatures of roughly 5000 K, pressures of about 1000 atmospheres, and heating and cooling rates above 1010 K/s. In single bubble cavitation, conditions may be even more extreme. Cavitation, then, can create extreme physical and chemical conditions in otherwise cold liquids. If liquids containing solids are irradiated with ultrasound, related phenomena can occur. Near an extended solid surface, cavity collapse becomes non-spherical, which drives high-speed jets of liquid into the solid surface. These jets and associated shock waves can cause substantial surface damage and expose fresh, highly heated surfaces. In addition, high velocity inter-particle collisions will occur during ultrasonic irradiation of liquid-powder suspensions through cavitation and the shockwaves it creates in such slurries. The resultant collisions are capable of inducing dramatic changes in surface morphology, composition, and reactivity.” [Suslick 2001: 2f.]
These intense conditions of ultrasonic cavitation have several effects on plant material and their extractability:

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The ultrasound-assisted extraction is based on repeating high pressure and low pressure cycles. These alternating high pressure and low pressure cycles of 20,000 times per second of sonication create intense shear forces and liquid jets. This extreme stress overcomes the selectivity of membrane, perforates and breaks the cell wall, and results in a high mass transfer between the inner cell and the surrounding solvent. By ultrasonic extraction, higher yields and shorter extraction durations can be realized. Since ultrasonic extraction is a reproducible process, the extraction results can be repeated for a standardized extract quality.
Hielscher’s ultrasonic extractors give you full control over the important extraction parameters. By adjusting amplitude, duration, pressure and liquid composition, the output of the extraction process can be precisely controlled and reproduced.

Hielscher Ultrasonics is long-time experienced with ultrasonic processing and has a deep going understanding of ultrasonic extraction processes. We assist you with recommendations for the most suitable ultrasonicator for your process and educate you how to use our devices most efficiently. Our engineers are available for installations service, worldwide.
In our fully equipped ultrasonic process lab in Germany, our team of process engineers and chemists is able to develop and optimize your process for you or with you together.

Best results for ultrasonically assisted extraction of plant extracts (e.g. active compounds from herbs, medicinal plant etc.) are achieved at a process temperature between 0-60°C. The ultrasonic extraction is a non-thermal and thereby mild method so that the extracted active ingredients are prevented from degradation.

Sonication and Extraction Conditions

The ultrasonic extraction can be easily combined with pressure, heat, supercritical extraction conditions or Soxhlet extractor to improve results and/or adapt the extraction setup to specific requirements.
Already existing extraction machines can be easily upgraded by implementing an ultrasonic extractor. We would be glad to assist you with the installation to retro-fit an ultrasonicator into your extraction setup.

All common solvents can be used for your ultrasonic extraction. Depending on whether the extracts are produces for oral or inhalation pharmaceuticals, analysis, quality control or other purposes, certain solvents are particularly suitable for specific purposes. Ultrasonic extraction allows for the use of various solvents including water, solvents and oils (e.g. H2O, CO2, ethanol, methanol, butane, propane, olive oil, coconut oil etc.).

Ultrasound cbd extraction

Hielscher’s ultrasonic extractors can be precisely tuned to optimal extraction conditions – extracting the highest amount and quality from your raw material (cannabis leaves, buds, stems etc.). The ultrasound intensity is crucial when it comes to the extraction of botanical compounds such as high-quality CBD oil from cannabis. Our ultrasonicators UP400St, UIP500hdt, UIP1000hdt and UIP2000hdt are equipped with precise amplitude control, temperature sensor and time control to allow you operating under optimal conditions. The coloured touch screen and browser control make operation and monitoring simple and reliable.

Solvents

When power ultrasound waves are couples into a liquid (e.g. a suspension consisting of botanical material in a solvent), the ultrasonic waves travel through the liquid causing alternating high-pressure / low-pressure cycles. During low-pressure cycles, minute vacuum bubbles (so-called cavitation bubbles) are created, which grow over several pressure cycles. At a certain size, when the bubbles cannot absorb more energy, they implode violently during a high-pressure cycle. The bubble implosion is characterised by intense cavitational forces, including micro-turbulences and liquid streams with velocities of up to 100m/s. These cavitational shear effects are also known as sonomechanical effects. Ultrasonic extraction of bioactive molecules is mainly caused by sonomechanical effects:
The extraordinary conditions of ultrasonic cavitation perforate and/or disrupt cell walls and membranes and enable greater penetration of solvent into the sample. Ultrasonic extraction achieves therefore a very rapid isolation of compounds – outperforming conventional extraction methods in shorter process time, higher yield, and at lower temperatures. As a mild (sono-)mechanical treatment, ultrasound extraction prevents the thermal degradation of bioactive compounds and outperforms other techniques such as conventional solvent extraction, hydrodistillation, or Soxhlet extraction, which are known to destruct heat-sensitive molecules. These advantages makes ultrasonic extraction the preferred technique for the release of temperature-sensitive active compounds from botanicals.
Therefore ultrasonic extraction is the preferred technique to extract bioactive molecules such as polyphenols, terpenes, essential oils and cannabinoids from the plant materials.

Advantages of Ultrasound Extraction

The extraordinary conditions of ultrasonic cavitation perforate and/or disrupt cell walls and membranes and enable greater penetration of solvent into the sample. Ultrasonic extraction achieves therefore a very rapid isolation of compounds – outperforming conventional extraction methods in shorter process time, higher yield, and at lower temperatures. As a mild mechanical treatment, ultrasound extraction prevents the thermal degradation of bioactive compounds and outperforms other techniques such as conventional solvent extraction, hydrodistillation, or Soxhlet extraction, which are known to destruct heat-sensitive molecules. These advantages makes ultrasonic extraction the preferred technique for the release of temperature-sensitive active compounds from botanicals.

With ultrasonic extraction the problem is that THC and CBD are hydrophobic . Typically, harsh solvents have been required to pull the cannabinoids from the cell walls. Bioavailability has been a problem in the breakdown of the tough cellular wall so finding the perfect extraction method has been challenging. With ultrasonic extraction, the sonication uses ultrasonic waves. A probe is inserted into the mixture. The probe starts to put forth both high and low pressure sound waves. The waves create microscopic currents and pressurized liquid eddies which creates a harsh environment. The speed of the waves goes at speeds of 20,000 per second which effectively bust through the cell walls. The sheer force creates a pressurized atmosphere. Millions of tiny bubbles form that start to pop and effectively break down the cell wall. Once the cell wall breaks, the inner material is released which creates a powerful emulsion.

Water ultrasonic extraction relies on ultrasonic waves (referred to as sonication) to pull the cannabinoids from the plant fibers. An environmentally friendly extraction method, it does not use harsh solvents. Another perk is that it takes only minutes to obtain the cannabinoids compared to other methods which take from hours to days to obtain the extraction. Depending on the ultrasonic extractor, it can be easily modified to work with a wide array of solvents such as CO2, H20, coconut oil, olive oil, ethanol, and warm water.

Warm water ultrasound extraction has many benefits, and it is quickly becoming the favored method.

Breaking Through the Cellular Walls

Steam distillation has been used by many CBD brands because of its low cost and the fact it does not leave behind any harsh solvent residue. However, it is notoriously ineffective. Also, the heat can damage the plant’s terpenes.

Ultrasonic emulsion is a method that can be combined with other extraction methods to create remarkably high concentrations. The method is easy to replicate. Producers can combine other methods to create optimum cannabinoid potency. With liposomal technology, CBD which is naturally hydroponic, the water soluble solution is quickly transformed. Liposomes work as tiny messengers and they further help encapsulate the cannabinoids with the process to create a powerful therapeutic agent.

How Does Ultrasound Extraction Work?

Natural extraction methods have also been explored but they seem to leave behind a strong chlorophyll taste which many users find unpleasant. In addition, they produce lower concentrations of CBD.

One of the most popular extraction methods is CO2 extraction, which is also eco-friendly, solvent-free, and amazingly effective. Supercritical CO2 extraction renders exceedingly high yields of CBD without damaging terpenes or the plant’s other phytochemicals. Although this method is impressive, it is also awfully expensive and must be carried out in a sophisticated and advanced laboratory setting. Also, it produces lower yields than warm water ultrasonic extraction.