Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or “shell shock” as it was known in the early twentieth century, is most often associated with military veterans. This is because the vast majority of diagnoses are made post-combat resulting from the highly stressful, frightening and distressing events experienced during war. However, this psychological disorder impacts people of all ages, professions, and walks of life, with nearly 3.5% of the adult population being affected by PTSD.
Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
According to the Veterans Association, reported that CBD is effective for helping with many of the difficulties our veterans are currently facing, including the relief symptoms of PTSD and anxiety. Similarly, there are several media pieces and stories about people, including this veteran, that take CBD for their PTSD, indicating that it is a popular, effective and side-effect free choice for many.
P ost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common psychiatric condition with a lifetime prevalence of 6.1% in the United States. 1 PTSD often presents in clusters of symptoms, including the re-experiencing of traumatic events through intrusive memories and nightmares, avoidance of certain distressing factors, and alterations in mood, level of arousal, and cognition. Psychotherapy is the established first-line treatment for PTSD, and various psychiatric medications are also typically employed. The development of additional treatment agents is important because current medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, antiadrenergic agents, and second-generation antipsychotics, have questionable efficacy and often carry significant undesirable side-effect profiles.
Although the pathophysiology of PTSD has not yet been definitively described, a number of factors are suspected to contribute to the development of this disorder. One hypothesis relates PTSD to dysregulated memory retrieval through the process of reconsolidation and impaired extinction of aversive memories. 2 The endogenous cannabinoid system has been shown to play an important role in the process of aversive memory extinction through the activity of central CB1 receptors. 3 Two cannabinoid receptors are known to exist in the human body: CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are located mainly in the brain and modulate neurotransmitter release in a manner that prevents excessive neuronal activity, thus calming and decreasing anxiety. CB1 receptors also have a role in reducing pain, inflammation, regulating movement and posture control, and regulating sensory perception, memory, and cognitive function.
Of particular interest to this study is the effect of CBD on the endogenous cannabinoid system. CBD has minimal affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, 11 but it does indirectly cause activation of CB1 receptors by increasing the availability of endogenous endocannabinoids. Anandamide is an endogenous cannabinoid that acts as a partial agonist at CB1 receptors. It is metabolically deactivated by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). CBD has been shown in some studies to inhibit FAAH, thus increasing the availability of anandamide and causing activation of the endocannabinoid system. 12 Studies in rodent models have shown that pharmacologic activation of the endocannabinoid system through CB1-receptor agonist agents leads to decreased behavioral response to aversive memories in rodent models through the inhibition of memory reconsolidation and enhanced extinction. 13–15 This early research suggests that agents such as CBD that cause indirect activation of the endocannabinoid system may have utility in the treatment of PTSD.
Conclusions: Administration of oral CBD in addition to routine psychiatric care was associated with PTSD symptom reduction in adults with PTSD. CBD also appeared to offer relief in a subset of patients who reported frequent nightmares as a symptom of their PTSD. Additional clinical investigation, including double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, would be necessary to further substantiate the response to CBD that was observed in this study.
After the initial baseline assessment, PCL-5 assessments were completed by patients every 4 weeks to monitor changes in the severity of PTSD symptoms. In addition to CBD, patients also received routine treatment in the form of psychiatric medications, various psychotherapy modalities, and standard integrative treatments, as indicated for their diagnoses of PTSD and other psychiatric comorbidities. These integrative treatments often included dietary changes, herbal supplementation, neurofeedback, and intravenous infusions of vitamins and minerals.