Does Broad Spectrum Hemp Oil Contain CBD

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There are three main types of CBD oil. Learn about the differences between Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum and CBD Isolate. Read now. Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum and Isolate: What’s the Difference? What’s the difference between full-spectrum, broad spectrum and isolate CBD? You’ve come to the right place! Full

The Different Types of CBD Oil Explained

The term CBD oil is misleading and often misused. In this article, you’ll learn common CBD oil-related terminology, the three main types of CBD products and the difference between an oil and a tincture.

Tom Brown
  1. There are three main types of CBD product: Isolates, Full Spectrum and Broad Spectrum CBD.
  2. Concentrate is an umbrella term for any product that has a high concentration of cannabinoids.
  3. Oils and tinctures differ in the cannabinoid carrier. In tinctures, the carrier is an alcohol. In oils, the carrier is oil.

CBD (Cannabidiol)

In Australia, we have over 150 cannabis products that a doctor can prescribe. Most of the products are considered CBD oils. And, as of Feb 2021, low dose CBD oils will be legal over the counter in pharmacies.

With a rise in the popularity of CBD oil across the globe, the terminology used to describe products has become increasingly confusing. Companies have created multiple types of CBD oil and numerous forms of CBD products to differentiate themselves from competitors. We’ve created this guide to CBD to help clear up any confusion about what CBD is and how it may benefit you.

In the last article, how CBD oil works on the body, we discussed how we define health in relation to CBD and the endocannabinoid system, how the endocannabinoid system regulates your homeostasis, and how CBD oil can help improve your health. In this article, you’ll learn about the different types of CBD oil, their ingredients and how they differ from a health standpoint. Here are the topics we’ll cover so you can jump ahead if you’re looking for something specific.

Frequently used CBD oil terms

Before we talk about the different types of CBD oil, you must understand some of the terms you’ll read when researching CBD oil. These terms can often be confusing and may make it more difficult to find what you’re looking for on your CBD quest. Three popular terms that often confuse people are ‘CBD concentrates’, ‘raw CBD oil’ and ‘PCR Hemp oil or PCR CBD oil’.

CBD Concentrates

CBD concentrates are any CBD extracts that contain a very high concentration of cannabidiol. So, when looking for a CBD product, you’re likely going to be looking for a concentrate. Concentrates come in many forms and include:

  • crumble
  • crystals and isolate
  • distillate
  • extract (CBD oil)
  • shatter
  • wax

These high potency products usually contain anywhere from 45% to 99.9% cannabidiol. The idea is that these products will give you a high dosage of CBD via a smaller dose in a shorter period of time. It’s also important to know that all CBD extracts are concentrates but not all concentrates are extracts.

Raw CBD oil

Raw CBD oil is created without using solvents or heat during the extraction process. Typically Raw CBD oil is made via a CO2 extraction process. Because most of the original plant stays intact during and after the process, the resulting product contains the full spectrum of the plant’s cannabinoids including CBD and CBDa. In addition to all of the cannabinoids, the resulting product contains the terpenes and pigments.

PCR Hemp oil (or PCR CBD oil)

You’ll often hear the term cannabinoids when referring to CBD and THC. Cannabinoids are a class of chemical compounds produced by several biological species. PCR stands for phytocannabinoid rich. Phytocannabinoids are simply cannabinoids produced by plants.

The terms PCR (phytocannabinoid rich) hemp oil and PCR CBD oil are simply saying that the oil has a large range of cannabinoids. The terms PCR hemp or PCR CBD are more accurate than the term ‘CBD oil’ for compounds that have CBD and other cannabinoids.

Often PCR Hemp oil and PCR CBD oil are interchangeable with the term ‘full spectrum CBD or full spectrum hemp oil’.

Now we’ll cover the three main types of CBD oils.

CBD Isolate vs Full Spectrum CBD vs Broad Spectrum CBD

Most people use the term CBD oil interchangeably for multiple products. The term CBD oil, however, is not necessarily accurate because many CBD oil products contain several cannabinoids. A majority of the CBD oil that you can get for medical and wellness purposes come from the hemp plant (vs marijuana). We differentiate CBD oils by their cannabinoid content.

There are three main types of CBD oil that you’ll hear about:

  1. Isolate (CBD)
  2. Full Spectrum CBD oil
  3. Broad Spectrum CBD oil
What is the difference between broad spectrum, full spectrum and isolate in CBD oil?

The difference between broad spectrum, full spectrum and CBD isolate is simply the chemical compound content found in each of the products.

Full spectrum CBD contains all of the cannabinoids and other plant compounds. Broad spectrum CBD contains all cannabinoids and plant compounds other than THC.

CBD isolate only contains CBD and is often found in crystal or powder form.

What is CBD isolate?

CBD isolate is a true ‘CBD or CBD oil’ because an isolate only contains CBD (cannabidiol) and does not contain any other cannabinoids, terpenes, or healthy fatty acids from the plant. Most companies sell isolate as a crystal or a powder, however, some sell it as an oil.

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It is made through the same extraction process as other CBD oils. The difference is that once the cannabinoids are extracted, the CBD is filtered out. It then goes through a chilling process called winterisation, which removes all other chemical compounds.

Isolate is often used for vaping, and when in crystal or powder form is generally administered by putting it under the tongue. The benefits of isolate over other types of CBD are that it’s generally cheaper and it has no THC. The downside is that you miss out on the potential entourage effect which exists when a full spectrum of the cannabinoids is present in the oil.

What is Full Spectrum CBD Oil?

Full spectrum CBD oil is very different from CBD isolate. We say this because full spectrum CBD oil has CBD and all of the other cannabinoids (including THC), terpenes and fatty acids that naturally occur in the cannabis plant. Full spectrum CBD is often called a full or whole plant extract.

In a full spectrum extract, the oil goes through the cannabinoid extraction process and filtration, however, none of the cannabinoids or other compounds are removed. While full spectrum CBD does have THC, it does not contain enough THC to get you high. It will however likely show up on a roadside mouth swab test.

The benefits of a full spectrum CBD oil is that many of the other chemical compounds and cannabinoids in a full-plant extract have healing properties. For example, the terpenes in the cannabis plant are known to have anti-inflammatory properties. Other cannabinoids found in a whole plant extract are thought to enhance the overall benefits of taking CBD.

In 2005 a study concluded that a CBD oil with a full-plant extract had greater medicinal properties than only CBD. Because the oil has all of the cannabinoids and other chemical compounds, you will get the positive effects of the chemical synergies called the entourage effect.

What is Broad Spectrum CBD Oil?

Broad spectrum CBD oil is a middle ground between CBD isolate and full spectrum CBD oils. It has all of the cannabinoids and other chemical compounds except for THC. It has all the beneficial chemical compounds except for THC, so you’re likely to gain some of the beneficial effects of the entourage effect.

Broad spectrum CBD oil is not as easy to find as the other types of CBD oil. Like its counterparts, broad spectrum CBD oil goes through the normal extraction process. For places where THC is illegal, the benefit of broad spectrum CBD oil is that in the final stages of processing, the THC is removed from the extract. Therefore, broad spectrum CBD oil will not show up on a drug test if the test is looking for THC.

CBD Carriers: oils vs tinctures

Now that you understand the different types of CBD and CBD oils that you can purchase, it’s important you understand the types of carrier agents for CBD. A carrier agent is the base through which can ingest the CBD and other cannabinoids. While CBD oils and tinctures may look the same to the untrained eye, they are very different.

What’s the difference between a cbd oil and cbd tincture?

The difference between a CBD oil and CBD tincture is the CBD carrier. In a CBD oil, the carrier of the CBD is the oil that’s used. In a CBD tincture, also a liquid, the carrier is an alcohol. The only similarity between the two, other than the cannabinoid content in some cases, is the fact that they are both liquids.

CBD oil

A CBD oil is exactly what it sounds like. The CBD and other cannabinoids are extracted from the plant and into an oil. Oil extraction is still the most popular form of extraction and is often the carrier of choice when oils are made at home. Common oil carriers are:

  • Coconut oil
  • Hemp seed oil
  • MCT oil
  • Olive oil

CBD tincture

A CBD tincture is a CBD liquid that uses alcohol as the carrier base rather than an oil. Tinctures are created by steeping cannabis in a high-proof grain alcohol. The mixture is then put on a low heat for an extended time in order to infuse the plant compounds. Over time, the alcohol is burned off and the infusion takes place. Tinctures can usually be stored for longer periods of times than oils

Bringing it all together

While looking for CBD can feel complicated, knowing a few specific things will make it much easier. CBD concentrates come in many forms and normally contain 45% to 99.9% cannabidiol. Raw CBD oil hasn’t been decarboxylated (heated and activated) and therefore has different cannabinoids than other CBD oil. PCR (Phyto-cannabinoid rich) hemp oil means that the oil has a full spectrum of the cannabinoids in the final oil product.

There are three main types of CBD products:

  • CBD Isolate which contains only CBD and usually comes in a powder or crystal form.
  • Full Spectrum CBD Oil which means it contains all of the cannabinoids and other chemicals that naturally occur in the plant before extraction.
  • Broad Spectrum CBD oil has everything that full spectrum contains except for the THC. Note: In Australia, some doctors are prescribing what they are calling Broad Spectrum oil, but it contains THC.
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When you purchase a CBD product you will want to decide between a CBD isolate, an oil or a tincture. CBD oils use an oil as a carrier for the cannabinoids whereas a CBD tincture uses alcohol. No CBD oil will get you high, but those with THC in them may show up on a drug test. When speaking with your doctor or researching CBD products, you’ll need to do your research on which type of product will work best for you.

In the next article, you’ll learn about the benefits and side effects of taking CBD as a medication or nutritional supplement. If you found this article helpful, please feel free to share or send us a message. If you have a question about CBD that you can’t find an answer to, you can always ask us a question on our contact us page.

Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum and Isolate: What’s the Difference?

What’s the difference between full-spectrum, broad spectrum and isolate CBD? You’ve come to the right place!

Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum, and Isolate refer to types of cannabis extracts, also called concentrates. The terms are intended to indicate the amount of plant-produced therapeutic chemicals present in addition to the primary cannabinoids (CBD and/or THC); they are a shorthand way of conveying the diversity of bioactive material in a given extract.

To understand the relevance of phytochemical diversity to product development, why these terms were coined, and how they may be interpreted today, we must first explain the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and the Entourage Effect.

The Endocannabinoid System

The ECS is a network of neurotransmitters, their receptors and enzymes. It is present in all extant vertebrate species and some insects. Scientists’ discovery of the ECS has happened gradually over the latter part of the last century, beginning in 1964 with the identification and synthesis of THC by Mechoulam and Gaoni, pioneering Israeli scientists. It was named by Italian biochemist Vincenzo Di Marzo, who initially outlined its influence in “eating, sleeping, relaxing, forgetting and protecting” in the early 90s. This system plays a critical role in almost every regulatory function of our bodies.

Today’s consumers are becoming more curious about which cannabis options work best for them and why. There is a lot of information out there, easily accessible through a Google search, but most consumers do not have the time or inclination to deep-dive into cannabis science; they just want to know what they can expect. The problem is, the ECS is as unique as a fingerprint; everyone is different, and trial and error is inherent in the journey toward optimization. However, the chemicals produced in the plant alongside cannabinoids have more predictable and well-studied effects than the cannabinoids themselves. Knowing the phytochemical profile of a hemp or cannabis extract can help developers define and standardize their products at scale.

The Entourage Effect

The definition of the Entourage Effect is relatively simple; it is the theory that cannabinoids have more favorable actions when delivered with a higher proportion of native phytochemicals such as terpenes , flavonoids, and other cannabinoids. This manifests as both amplification of positive effects (efficacy) and modulation of undesirable ones (tolerability). The term was coined in 1988 by Raphael Mechoulam, the same Israeli scientist who discovered THC, and its potential mechanisms were first illuminated by Dr. Ethan Russo in his landmark 2011 paper, “Taming THC.” Put even more simply, the Entourage Effect is a way of saying that, when it comes to cannabis and hemp, the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

The interactions between various cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids are complex; it will take decades of research to parse them. Fortunately, terpenes and flavonoids have at least as much scientific research behind them as ahead of them. They are already common additives in many commercial processed goods, especially cosmetics, and of course, food – plants make tens of thousands of different terpenes alone. They can also be synthesized.

The Entourage Effect is the reasoning behind extractions that seek to retain as much of the native phytochemical context as possible. However, this comes at the expense of standardization and palatability, so each use case will necessitate its own balance of values.

Creating Cannabis Extracts

Cannabinoids are produced most abundantly in trichomes, the resin glands of the hemp and cannabis plants. To be used in processed beverages or topicals, these glands must first be concentrated, then their oils separated from plant waxes and other non-useful vegetative matter. There are two main categories of processes to do this: solvent and non-solvent. Various levels of technological sophistication exist within each category, and most finished extracts employ elements of both.

Solvent: In this method, a solvent is added to dissolve the cannabinoids, then evaporated, leaving a concentrated oil. Solvents can be further divided by polarity. Non-polar solvents, such as butane, dissolve only non-polar compounds from the plant, in this case the oils and other lipids making up the trichome heads. Polar solvents, such as ethanol, will extract both non-polar and polar compounds, including water-soluble compounds such as chlorophyll. These bring with them with strong herbaceous flavors; however, many polar compounds are desirable from a therapeutic standpoint.

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Non-solvent (Mechanical): Using temperature or pressure changes, cannabinoid oils can be separated without the use of a solvent. Distillation uses the variability in boiling points of a plant’s constituent chemicals to yield very pure extracts. Solvent-extracted concentrates are evaporated and then condensed at precise temperatures. The resulting product typically tests at 85-97% purity.

Full Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum vs. Isolate CBD

The graphic above illustrates the difference in color and plant materials in each of the three extracts.

The following are the terms used to categorize the three different types of extracts.

Full Spectrum

Full Spectrum CBD means the maximum amount of helpful native phytochemicals are retained during extraction, including THC. The goal is to remove extraneous lipids while retaining an identical ratio of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids from the original plant source material. This can only be verified by testing the material before and after the extraction. True Full Spectrum extracts are rarer than one might expect; most extractions lose significant terpenes and flavonoids during processing because they are much more volatile than cannabinoids. Ethanol and very low heat (the RSO method or whole plant oil), or an extremely long vacuum extraction process can yield Full Spectrum extracts. Full Spectrum extracts tend to be quite dark in color, and their flavors can be described as earthy and vegetal.

Broad Spectrum

Broad Spectrum applies to extractions that aim to retain a large complement of phytochemicals without the THC, which allows for some Entourage Effect action. Hemp, defined as cannabis plants containing less than .3% THC, forms the basis for most Broad Spec extracts. Broad Spectrum can also be created by either adding terpenes, flavonoids, and minor cannabinoids to CBD isolate or by removing THC from Full Spectrum extract via distillation. Compared to Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum extracts are slightly lighter in color, and while their flavor profiles are similar, they are not as hemp-forward and bold.

Distillate

Distillate takes the opposite approach of Full Spectrum, seeking to remove everything but the cannabinoid(s) of interest. After undergoing solvent extraction, the concentrated oil is run through the short-path distillation process described above, often multiple times, to purify it. Some suppliers will advertise “Full Spectrum distillate” but this is contradictory. If terpenes or other bioactives are reintroduced after distillation, the product is sometimes also called Broad Spectrum.

Isolate

Isolate is the purest form of extracted cannabinoids, a crystalline powder with a purity of 99.9%. It is created through additional solvent processes after distillation. The additional processing steps are expensive, but due to the extreme purity of the final product, cheaper crude extracts can be used as starting material without concern for residues.

Choosing the Right Spectrum

Both Full and Broad Spectrum concentrates offer the benefits of the Entourage Effect. If your CBD product is relatively low-dose, having a diversity of phytochemicals is even more important. Beyond their potential therapeutic effects, all these minor players also give cannabis its depth, creating a symphony of flavor and smell, and ultimately making the bitterness of cannabinoid extracts more palatable.

However, even a pleasant symphony of flavors can have a strong personality; it will never be a neutral canvas onto which flavor scientists can project their artistry. Rather, it is a dominating flavor of its own – and one that changes with each batch of extract. In emulsions, the diversity of chemicals, each with slightly different weights, is also a challenge.

By contrast, distillates and isolates offer consistency and standardization; they are a known quantity. With them, a product producers can use a wider variety of flavorings to make the formulation really shine, and they are far more consistent in emulsions (as long as the supplier is reliable). The consumer can also expect the same effects and sensory experience every time.

Choosing the correct starting material for product development is a careful balance of values. For most commercial purposes, purer extracts are desirable because they allow producers to standardize and iterate based on known, reliable effects. However, for the more wellness-focused, the benefits of a fuller complement of phytochemicals are worth the variability.

At SōRSE, we are able to strike a balance between standardization and efficacy. Many of our products reconstruct the phytochemical profile block by block to yield a consistent but fully articulated product – similar to molecular gastronomy, but for hemp. Not only are we able to offer Broad Spectrum and Isolate emulsions in water-soluble liquid and powder form, but we are able to create custom emulsions for our customers based on what they need to make their product unique. If you are a product developer wondering which spectrum is right for your product or if you are interested in creating a custom blend of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, reach out for an exploratory call with our team today.

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