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Thus, the elements of the wall must be selected so that in the first instance they impart the necessary resistance to keep heat, moisture, air and other flows within acceptable limits. The way they are arranged, however, is also important; this will determine the variations in conditions throughout the wall. These provide the environment in which the various parts of the wall must continue to function, and are seldom linearly graded from, outside to inside. Interactions between the various factors involved may produce conditions within the wall that require special attention. Some understanding of the phenomena involved is therefore necessary so that they can be judged quantitatively and wall designs evaluated.
Exterior Wall as a Barrier
Although trial by use must always be the ultimate test, the cost of full-scale experiments is usually so great that considerable study and effort is justified in order to ensure that the design will perform satisfactorily. It must be recognized also that the conditions for such full-scale, long-time trials in use may not be those for which the information is later required. This is particularly true in Canada today where important changes such as humidification in winter are being introduced. It is now possible with the aid of building science to recognize the pertinent factors affecting the performance of walls and to analyse wall designs systematically as to probable performance in respect of their varied requirements. With this capability one may begin to discriminate between various designs for particular uses, and, even more important, to provide a basis for the development of improved designs.
Items 1 to 7 of the requirements listed relate to the service required of a wall as a selective separator between indoor and outdoor environments. An actual or potential flow of matter or energy is involved. The greater the differences between the inside and outside environments, the greater is the stress or duty imposed on the wall.
The differences in the properties of inside and outside atmospheres to be separated by a wall dictate the requirements of that wall. In combination with the properties of the materials to be used, these differences determine the environments within which each element must perform. The service life of a material is determined by the properties of the material and the conditions of the environment to which it is subjected.