Background and aims: Several publications have suggested increasing cannabis potency over the last decade, which, together with lower amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), could contribute to an increase in adverse effects after cannabis smoking. Naturalistic studies on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD in blood samples are, however, missing. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples among cannabis users, and to compare cannabinoid concentrations with the outcome of a clinical test of impairment (CTI) and between traffic accidents and non-accident driving under the influence of drugs (DUID)-cases. Assessment of THC- and CBD contents in cannabis seizures was also included.
Conclusions: More than ¾ of the blood samples testing positive for THC, among subjects apprehended in Norway, also tested positive for CBD, suggesting frequent consumption of high CBD cannabis products. The simultaneous presence of CBD in blood does, however, not appear to affect THC-induced impairment on a CTI. Seizure sample analysis did not reveal high potency cannabis products, and while CBD content appeared high in hashish, it was almost absent in marijuana.
Methods: THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples from subjects apprehended in Norway from April 2013-April 2015 were included (n=6134). A CTI result was compared with analytical findings in cases where only THC and/or CBD were detected (n=705). THC- and CBD content was measured in 41 cannabis seizures.
In the last two decades, Cannabinoids have been studied extensively for its potential use in various fields of medicine including oncology. Today some of the cannabinoids are FDA approved for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced side effects in cancer treatment however, studies are showing their effect against tumor growth as well. Aggressive B cell lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the fifth leading cause of human cancer death and is the second fastest-growing cancer with regard to mortality in people as 30% of patients develop resistance against chemotherapy. For this reason, it is essential to develop novel strategies to improve the outcome of patients suffering from aggressive or therapy-resistant lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in B cell lymphoma using canine as a model due to striking similarities b/w canine and human B cell lymphoma in histology, biology and gene expression. For this study, Canine B cell lymphoma cell lines 1771 and CLBL1 were cultured in RPMI. Expression of cannabinoid receptors studied using qPCR. Based on receptor expression cells were treated with receptor agonists (AEA, 2AG, CBD, THC, WIN and HU-210,) and antagonists (S16 and S28). Cell viability assessed using MTT assay. Biochemical analysis performed using spectrofluorometry to evaluate apoptotic makers involved in inducing cell death. Data was analyzed using ordinary one way ANOVA on Prism software. All B cell lymphoma cell lines showed positive expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors. Cell viability assay demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation with all cannabinoid receptor agonists used except for 2AG. Biochemical analysis showed a decrease in nitrite and caspase activity in treated cells as compared to control untreated cells. Our results suggest that cannabinoids have an anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect on canine lymphoma cells and it can be developed as a potential anti-cancer agent for the treatment of canine and human B cell lymphoma.
Citation Format: Saba Omer, Dawn Boothe, Mohammed Mansour, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Satyanarayana Pondugula. Anti-proliferative effect of cannabidiol (CBD) against B and T-cell lymphoma [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Virtual Special Conference on Tumor Heterogeneity: From Single Cells to Clinical Impact; 2020 Sep 17-18. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2020;80(21 Suppl):Abstract nr PO-047.
All industrial land in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay was rezoned to “Business” use in 2001, which allows conversion of industrial buildings to office use and redevelopment into commercial/office buildings. In April 2010, the Government first introduced measures to revitalize industrial buildings in Hong Kong and reactivated the revitalization scheme in October 2018. By end-June 2021, 62 applications have been approved and executed for wholesale conversion or redevelopment in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay under the revitalization policy for industrial buildings. These industrial buildings will be redeveloped or converted into offices, shops and services, and hotels.
The National 12 th and 13 th Five-Year Plans have given support to Hong Kong’s position as an international centre for financial services, trade and shipping, strengthening its global influence as a financial centre. To capitalize on the fast-growing opportunities of the Mainland and to sustain Hong Kong’s position and longer term development, a steady and adequate supply of quality office space is pivotal.
As promulgated in the 2017 Policy Agenda, the Energizing Kowloon East initiative is extended to San Po Kong, with particular focus on enhancing connectivity, improving the environment, and promoting vibrancy and diversified development.
In the 2011-12 Policy Address, the Chief Executive announced the adoption of a visionary, coordinated and integrated approach to transform Kowloon East into an additional attractive CBD to sustain Hong Kong’s economic development. This initiative was reiterated in the subsequent Policy Addresses. Specifically, this involves land use reviews, enhanced urban design, and improvement to connectivity and the associated infrastructure.
Kowloon East (KE) is an area comprising the former Kai Tak Airport, the Kwun Tong Business Area and the Kowloon Bay Business Area. This area witnessed the rapid growth of an important industrial base in the heyday of Hong Kong’s manufacturing industries, creating some hundred thousands of jobs and propelling Hong Kong’s prosperity. Following relocation of the Airport to Chek Lap Kok and our manufacturing base to the Mainland, this area has lost some of its past vibrancy, leaving a huge stock of industrial buildings not being fully utilized. On the other hand, with the booming in Hong Kong’s financial and service sectors as well as large numbers of regional headquarters and regional offices of multi-national companies setting foot in Hong Kong, the demand for quality office space can no longer be met by our traditional Central Business District (CBD). Thanks to good market sense and first-mover initiatives of some private developers, high grade office building and retail centres are emerging in KE. About 2.9 million m 2 commercial/office floor space has been completed.
About 2 million m 2 of commercial/office space has been planned for within the 320 hectare Kai Tak Development (KTD). Other than the completed Trade and Industry Tower, the government offices in Inland Revenue Tower, Wan Chai will also be relocated to Kai Tak. With some 49,900 public and private housing units, an international cruise terminal, sports and tourism facilities, KTD will inject new developments, vibrancy and diversity into the area. Together with 168 hectares in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay Business Areas and the neighbouring San Po Kong Business Area (about 26 hectares), KE has great potential to evolve into a vibrant premier business district in Hong Kong.