<span><b>Background:</b> Accumulating evidence suggests that the non-intoxicating cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic and anxiolytic properties, and thus may be a promising new agent in the treatment of psychotic and anxiety disorders. However, the neurobiological substrates unde</span> … Current research suggest it can be both helpful and harmful to memory – here’s why. The beneficial properties of cannabidiol (CBD) are being studied and celebrated. Recent scientific evidence shows that CBD can help promote better memory function.
The Impact of Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function: A Systematic Review
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that the non-intoxicating cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic and anxiolytic properties, and thus may be a promising new agent in the treatment of psychotic and anxiety disorders. However, the neurobiological substrates underlying the potential therapeutic effects of CBD are still unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a detailed and up-to-date systematic literature overview of neuroimaging studies that investigated the acute impact of CBD on human brain function. Methods: Papers published until May 2020 were included from PubMed following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. We included studies that examined the effects of CBD on brain function of healthy volunteers and individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, comprising both the effects of CBD alone as well as in direct comparison to those induced by ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of Cannabis. Results: One-ninety four studies were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. All studies investigated the acute effects of CBD on brain function during resting state or in the context of cognitive tasks. In healthy volunteers, acute CBD enhanced fronto-striatal resting state connectivity, both compared to placebo and THC. Furthermore, CBD modulated brain activity and had opposite effects when compared to THC following task-specific patterns during various cognitive paradigms, such as emotional processing (fronto-temporal), verbal memory (fronto-striatal), response inhibition (fronto-limbic-striatal), and auditory/visual processing (temporo-occipital). In individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and patients with established psychosis, acute CBD showed intermediate brain activity compared to placebo and healthy controls during cognitive task performance. CBD modulated resting limbic activity in subjects with anxiety and metabolite levels in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion: Neuroimaging studies have shown that acute CBD induces significant alterations in brain activity and connectivity patterns during resting state and performance of cognitive tasks in both healthy volunteers and patients with a psychiatric disorder. This included modulation of functional networks relevant for psychiatric disorders, possibly reflecting CBD’s therapeutic effects. Future studies should consider replication of findings and enlarge the inclusion of psychiatric patients, combining longer-term CBD treatment with neuroimaging assessments.
Keywords: Cannabis (marijuana); cannabidiol; delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol; functional MRI; neuroimaging.
Copyright © 2021 Batalla, Bos, Postma and Bossong.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Does cannabis really affect memory? Here’s what research currently says
Elizabeth Hughes receives funding from National Institute for Health Research.
Ian Hamilton does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.
University of Leeds provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation UK.
University of York provides funding as a member of The Conversation UK.
THC and CBD, both cannabis compounds, have very different effects on the brain. Dmytro Tyshchenko/ Shutterstock
Cannabis use has long been associated with memory loss. But until now, this notion was largely anecdotal. As researchers begin to look into cannabis and the effect that it has on human health, they’re beginning to better understand the effect it has on the human brain – and whether cannabis really does impair memory.
Memory is divided into both short-term and long-term memory. Short-term memory is where immediate events are temporarily stored, whereas long-term memory is where information is stored indefinitely.
Current evidence shows that cannabis intoxication may temporarily alter or distort short-term memory processing. This seems to be caused by compounds in cannabis that disrupt neural signalling when binding to receptors responsible for memory in the brain. Interrupted short-term memory can indeed impact on learning, and may also cause loss of interest or problems with concentration.
However, early research also shows that cannabis could have a positive impact on neurodegenerative diseases that affect memory, such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington Chorea, and epilepsy. In mainly animal studies, when researchers used components found in cannabis, they found it could slow or even prevent the advance of these diseases – essentially through the creation of neurons.
These apparently paradoxical effects from the same drug are best explained by two chemicals found in cannabis. Namely delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We all have naturally occurring cannabinoid receptors in our brains. THC is able to effectively bind to these receptors, creating euphoric effects. However CBD can interfere with this binding process, which dampens the feeling of euphoria.
Different ratios of these two chemicals are found in various types of cannabis. Consuming a cannabis product with THC but no CBD increases the risk of developing mental health problems, such as psychosis. However, CBD could actually be used to treat psychosis.
Cannabis with higher levels of THC and lower, or negligible, amounts of CBD appear to have a detrimental effect on short-term memory, particularly in adolescents. The main problem is their ability to retain and recall information. Fortunately this is not permanent.
But these recent discoveries about the role of THC and CBD in cannabis show that we can no longer simply say cannabis itself causes psychosis, or is detrimental to memory. Rather, it might be the type of cannabis, and the compounds it contains, that may have specific risks or benefits.
And while there’s little doubt that some people who use cannabis do experience impaired memory, establishing that cannabis is the cause is tricky. One reason for this is because it’s difficult to rule out the impact of other drugs that people may have used – and whether these drugs contributed to this memory impairment. For example, alcohol misuse can also cause brain damage and memory loss. Another obvious problem when researching this is when asking people with impaired memory to recall their past drug use and any associated problems. Their ability to recall these details could be compromised.
Recent research even suggests that any memory impairment associated with using cannabis can be reversed when people stop using cannabis. This effect was seen mainly in those who used cannabis at least once a week.
Just as higher doses of alcohol can potentially cause brain damage, higher doses or more frequent use of cannabis may also cause long-term memory problems – the ability to learn effectively and the ability to concentrate on a task for example. Some people will use both alcohol and cannabis, often at the same time, which may both worsen the potential impact on memory.
New research also suggests that it’s cannabis, rather than alcohol, that’s responsible for damage to developing teen brains. Though alcohol can destroy or severely damage brain neurons and their signalling functions, this study showed cannabis actually changes the neural brain tissue responsible for memory. But this change can be reversed within a matter of weeks if a person abstains. Though surveys suggest fewer young people are using both cannabis and alcohol, those teenagers that do use cannabis use it twice as frequently.
Frequent cannabis by teens may impact their memory and ability to concentrate. mooremedia/ Shutterstock
Research shows that young, frequent users of cannabis have thinner temporal and frontal cortices, which are both areas that help process memory functioning. Memory is a critical aid to learning and study – but cannabis doesn’t just effect memory, it can also reduce motivation to learn. This dual influence reduces a young person’s engagement in education and their ability to perform.
However, using cannabis later in life (age 50 and over) appears to have only a moderate impact on cognitive functioning, including on memory. These modest declines are not fully understood, and there is a lack of high quality research in this area. That will need to change as it’s not just young people that use cannabis. As more countries legalise cannabis, older people might also want to try it.
While there is likely to be no great harm to a person’s memory if they experiment with cannabis, current research seems to agree that the more frequent the use, the greater the risk. Though there is still a lot that researchers don’t yet know about cannabis use on memory, current evidence suggests that any memory impairment can be reversed if a person abstains from use.
Does CBD Affect Memory Function?
Recent studies show that a single dose of CBD can have a multitude of benefits for the user.
CBD, or cannabidiol, is known to help reduce symptoms associated with muscle and joint swelling, ease skin irritations, aid in disrupted sleep cycles, relieve tension, and support mental health.
With these incredible effects of CBD, it will not enact a psychotropic effect on the body and mind like another cannabinoid derived from the Cannabis sativa plant, Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Instead of causing psychoactive effects, CBD has a more subtle effect on the brain that can benefit our wellbeing and even play a role in memory function.
How Does CBD Work Within The Body?
Both THC and CBD interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (the ECS), which helps regulate balance throughout the body’s multiple systems.
The endocannabinoid system uses naturally produced chemical messages known as endocannabinoids to communicate.
These endocannabinoids can bind with cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors) found in the brain and the nervous system to activate various biological functions, such as increased hormone production, working memory, or brain cell activity within the hippocampus.
How Is CBD Different From THC?
While THC and CBD share the same molecular formula makeup, which is 21 carbon atoms, 30 hydrogen atoms, and two oxygen atoms, their molecular arrangement sets them apart. Their molecular mass is nearly identical, but a slight variation in their molecular formation leads the two to play very different roles within the ECS.
CBD cannot be psychoactive because of how it is built. The molecular structure will not allow it to bind with the endocannabinoid system’s CB1 receptors the way THC does. This allows the two phytocannabinoids to affect the brain in different ways.
While THC can have the reputation of causing memory loss, recent studies have revealed that CBD might have the opposite effect. It is a non-intoxicating substance that can improve memory retention consolidation.
How Does CBD Improve Memory Function?
CBD is a chemical compound that is naturally derived from the cannabis plant. It hosts many practical medical and therapeutic health benefits without producing the high or potentially harmful feelings associated with THC’s psychoactive effects, such as psychosis, nervousness, paranoia, or increased heart rate.
While CBD doesn’t bind directly with CB receptors in the brain, it can still support endocannabinoids that do bind with cannabinoid receptors, and has been found to interact with other receptors and neurotransmitters throughout the brain.
The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) function within the brain is believed to help improve memory function and prevent memory deficits in several ways.
CBD is considered neuroprotective, meaning it can help protect the neurons responsible for maintaining cognitive function from damage or degeneration. This can play an essential role in memory function and support those with memory and cognitive impairment.
A 2016 study found sufficient evidence that regular cannabis use can help slow or potentially reverse the loss of memory function associated with dementia by helping protect vital neurotransmitters and brain tissue. The study also found that CBD may support memory function and reduce memory impairment by helping increase the connection between brain cells. These results have been validated by clinical trials and research from additional laboratories.
As an antioxidant, CBD can help reduce oxidative stress within the body, which is known to damage healthy cells. Research has shown that oxidative stress can help reduce memory processing and retention by degrading brain cells.
Memory function capabilities decrease as more oxygen is released inside of the brain. CBD’s antioxidant properties can help reduce problems associated with oxygen stress. By utilizing CBD, brain functions that are negatively impacted by increased oxygen levels in the brain can be improved.
The body also becomes less capable of combating oxidative stress on its own as we age, meaning our cells have less natural protection from oxidative stress over time. By reducing the risk of oxidative stress as we age, CBD can help protect our brain cells, which in turn protects our memory function.
Reduce Stress Levels
High stress levels can impact memory function. When we are stressed, our brains have more trouble creating short-term memories and have a more challenging time translating short-term memories into long-term ones.
The good news is that using CBD can relieve the user from feelings of stress, tension, and discomfort from physical movement. For someone living with certain health conditions, the common effects of cannabis include helping ease the symptoms of stress and tension, improving motor functions, and reducing memory decline.
The soothing properties of CBD suppress agitation, allowing the user to calmly focus on the tasks at hand. This can help the brain better recall memories, as it takes away the stress associated with the struggle to remember.
Using CBD can also relieve symptoms associated with memory disturbances. When the brain’s immune cells fail to clear dead brain cells, blockages in neural pathways occur. The more swelling there is, the more significant the impact will be.
Swelling in the brain has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, cognitive decline, and memory loss. But thanks to its anti-swelling properties, CBD can help reduce swelling and increase blood flow in the brain, helping to reduce the risk of memory loss.
Limonene Terpenes And Memory Function
Terpenes are compounds found in nature, particularly in plants, responsible for their fragrance, taste, and medical properties.
Limonene terpenes, which are terpenes derived from citrus fruit, are the second most widely distributed terpenoid found in nature. These terpenes are bio-identical to CBD that are from a cannabis or hemp plant.
Limonene terpenes that are transformed into essential oils have been utilized as a holistic remedy for centuries. Regular usage can improve the quality of life in many different ways, especially for those struggling with memory function.
Scientific clinical studies suggest that citrus oil, due to the limonene terpenes, has soothing effects on the body and mind comparable to the impact of CBD derived from cannabis or hemp. It is a very safe ingestible substance that is also shown to soothe the gastrointestinal process for improved digestion.
Citrus oil also has been shown to have a calming effect on the mind, allowing for relaxation and improved focus. This will overall help with maintaining healthy memory function.
Scents trigger the olfactory system, which controls the body’s sense of smell. The olfactory sensors then trigger the emotional and memory centers of the brain. This is why smell is so closely related to memory and nostalgia. Just breathing in limonene terpenes in a citrus essential oil can evoke a calming response throughout the body.
Peels CBD Oil: CBD Without the THC
Using CBD has been shown to improve cognitive facial recognition skills when administered alone, without any THC compounds or impurities added. The addition of hemp, THC, pesticides, heavy metals, and mycotoxins are all too commonly present in CBD products that are derived from the cannabis plant.
These additions can detrimentally alter sought-after results regarding using CBD to aid memory function. That is why it is vital to do your research and choose a product that is as healthy and clean of impurities as possible.
Peels CBD Oil is made from terpenes found in orange peels. It is a natural substance that is absolutely guaranteed to be the purest and safest CBD oil on today’s market.
Peels CBD is known as nature-identical, which means it is the same as CBD found in a cannabis or hemp plant. Due to its origin being orange peels, there is zero hemp or THC content in its formula.
This pure tincture will allow for optimal benefits for the user in that additional and detracting ingredients and compounds will not muddle.
Peels CBD is odorless and tasteless in its raw form. In addition to organic medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil (from coconut), our tinctures have a distinctive citrus flavor and aroma due to our organic, natural citrus flavor. There is no hemp or cannabis-related smell or taste because our CBD is not derived from either of those sources.
Like CBD derived from the cannabis plant, both kinds describe a cannabinoid made through synthesis, which is chemically and molecularly identical to the same cannabinoid found in nature.
Our process of taking CBD from natural inputs guarantees zero THC and hemp content in our products. Everything that goes into the process is found in nature, and everything that comes out of our process is found in nature.
How To Use Peels CBD
Peels CBD Oil comes in tincture form, which is a concentrated herbal extract. Simply place a dropper full of CBD under your tongue, release your preferred dosage, and then hold it under the tongue for 30-60 seconds before consumption. This will speed up the absorption time in the body.
Try adding your CBD drops into your coffee, breakfast, or morning smoothie. With sublingual administration, CBD can begin to release its effects after only 30 minutes.
When consumed with food or drink, they will take the same amount of time as ingesting an edible. Since CBD is a fat-soluble compound, taking CBD with a high-fat meal will increase absorption.
CBD And Daily Life
CBD emits benefits that soothe the body and calms the mind. Regular CBD use supports full-body wellness.
Physically, CBD has been known to soothe joint discomfort and muscle tension temporarily. This is especially wonderful if you are an athlete or prone to recurring aches.
Mentally, CBD brings peace and calm to the stress hormones in the body, allowing you to think clearer and focus on your tasks at hand. It relieves the stress response in the body and creates a literal inner sense of balance, or homeostasis, within.
CBD is also used to help get a good night’s rest. While smaller doses of CBD are used as wakefulness and focusing agents, a slightly larger dose has been shown to have sedative effects.
As the brain works on memory processing and storage while you sleep, quality slumber is essential to the brain’s optimal memory function. By falling asleep and staying asleep, you set your brain up for success in its memory comprehension and storage systems.
CBD supports sleep by removing discomfort in the mind and body, creating a relaxed sense of peacefulness. It eases tension in the head, neck, and achy muscles or joints.
Emotionally and mentally, CBD will soothe any feelings of stress that might keep you up at night.
While there is still so much research that needs to be conducted regarding the relationship between CBD and memory, scientific studies support the findings that CBD increases region-specific blood flow in the brain, something that had previously been disputed.
By increasing blood flow to specific areas of the brain, those brain systems will be able to function quickly and efficiently.
Since it is safe and generally well tolerated with minimal side effects, it is an excellent option for a holistic and natural CBD treatment.
The nature of CBD is complex, and so much is still yet to be discovered. However, these scientific findings can advance further research in a range of medical conditions characterized by how the brain processes memory and function.