Because CBD oil is not considered a drug, it can be a common additive in many products. This includes e-cigarettes (vape oil), lotions and various herbal supplements. It has also been shown to relieve symptoms of different disorders like epilepsy, anxiety and multiple sclerosis.
How does it impact the liver?
June 4, 2019 by Natalie Shae
To further complicate the question, products with CBD oil may not give the exact amount listed on the package . Depending on the brand, the consumer may be using much more or less than they think. This is especially true of OTC supplements and e-cigarettes.
The FDA has approved a CBD-based drug named Epidiolex®. The drug was researched and made by Greenwich Biosciences, and the company’s vice-president of U.S. professional relations, Alice Mead, has stated to the FDA that CBD is “potentially” a liver toxin. She said this during the FDA’s first public hearing on CBD oil on May 31, 2019.
In one study , 10% of the subjects developed high liver enzymes—they had to stop using CBD for this reason. Other research suggests that CBD can improve liver function.
As determined by the studies done on Epidiolex®, CBD is metabolized by the liver. People with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are encouraged to limit over-the-counter (OTC) medications to avoid stressing the liver.
Both CB1 and CB2 receptors share low (44%) sequence homology and a similar ligand binding profile. CB1 receptors are located throughout the body, with the highest density expressed in the CNS “forebrain, thalamus, and basal ganglia.” This distribution correlates with known clinical and psychological effects of cannabinoids. Peripherally, CB1 receptors are localized in most internal organs and glands.[26,27] CB2 receptors on the other hand are primarily expressed in the cells of the immune system in the periphery, although they were recently detected in the brain, especially during inflammatory conditions.[27,28] Table 1 showed a comparison between both types of receptors and their role in fatty liver disease.
Hepatic endocannabinoids system
The use of peripherally restricted compounds with CB1 antagonist properties and limited brain penetration, such as CBD is promising.
Role of CB2 receptors in fibrogenesis
In another study involving 62 untreated asymptomatic men with varying body mass index (BMI), plasma concentrations of 2-AG levels correlated positively with BMI, waist girth, intra-abdominal adiposity (IAA), fasting plasma TG and insulin levels, and negatively with HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels. Furthermore, obese men with similar BMI values and who markedly differed in their amount of IAA exhibited higher 2-AG levels in the presence of high IAA. However, no difference in 2-AG concentrations was observed between obese men with low levels of IAA versus non-obese controls.