Felice Gersh, MD, ob-gyn and founder/director of the Integrative Medical Practice of Irvine in Irvine, California corroborates that experts' concern is related to lacking data and "the fact that production is poorly regulated in most states." While that remains to be the case, she advises her pregnant patients to avoid using CBD.
Maggie Frank, a mom who is also the National Educator for PlusCBD Oil, says she's seen the product "used by women during pregnancy to help with a wide range of complaints including morning sickness, stress and anxiety, sleeplessness, food aversions as well as the aches, pains and cramps that accompany pregnancy for many."
When Frank herself was expecting in 2015, prior to joining the company, she says she suffered from hypermesis gravitum (HG), a condition marked by chronic, severe morning sickness. "I was getting sick 20-30 times a day, was unable to nourish myself or my baby, and was constantly flirting with dehydration," she tells Parents.com. "The medicine typically prescribed for this has a slew of potential side effects, so I refused it. My symptoms actually got worse with each passing month, to a point where my doctor was recommending bed rest in the fourth month."
"The concern with phytocannabinoid/CBD supplementation and pregnancy is due to the unknown," Frank notes. "We currently don't have long-term research as to what happens years down the road as a result of utilizing hemp extracts in utero. Any woman using phytocannabinoids products should be aware of this and make her decision accordingly, preferably with her doctor."
That's when she says she started researching and learned about CBD. She was so intrigued that she discussed it with her doctor who she says "didn't have an opinion either way, other than it didn’t seem like it would be worse than the pharmaceutical’s risks, and we needed to figure something out fast."
That said, Congress is poised to lift a federal hemp ban this month, that, according to The Hill, "will for the first time allow lawmakers to develop and impose best manufacturing practices and standards for this nascent industry—policies that will ultimately lead to a safer and better-quality product for consumers."
The fact is that many—if not most—ob-gyns who would express concern and hesitate to recommend CBD use during pregnancy, in part due to the existing body of research, which is limited and has stated that cannabinoids could be harmful to both moms and their babies.
Frank says she started with 3 mg of PlusCBDOil Green peppermint spray, and got relief, the very first day. "It was like someone flipped off the switch that was making me feel sick at all times," she explains. "I was once again able to move, sleep and eat without feeling the need to vomit. Even my over sensitivity to smells dissipated!" She says that over the course of her pregnancy, she also experienced a "reduction in stress and anxiety levels, better mood, more patience, better sleep, and less aches and pains."
These properties are research-proven. Clinical research has shown that CBD, which is generally taken orally as a tincture or in an edible form, can be therapeutically useful for managing anxiety and depression, chronic pain, sleep disorders, and seizure disorders. There's also clinical evidence that CBD can be effective in suppressing nausea and vomiting, both symptoms commonly encountered by expectant moms. So, it's no surprise that some pregnant women are getting on-board with, or simply curious about, CBD use.
In terms of birth outcomes, there is some evidence that THC is linked to preterm birth and developmental problems. CBD is not, though it hasn’t been studied enough to know if there may be negative birth outcomes.
“Every person can make choices for themselves about what they do, they just need to have the information,” Rankins said. “It hasn’t been thoroughly studied in pregnancy, it’s not regulated the same way [as medications] to look for things like contaminants, so know that you may be exposing your baby to things that you don’t know about.”
Expert guidance is to avoid CBD use in pregnancy
The FDA points to animal research showing high doses of CBD in pregnancy leads to reproductive system problems in male fetuses. Other research that followed offspring of mice given CBD found the females had “thousands of changes in their gene expression” and worsened anxiety in adulthood. There’s also evidence CBD can be passed to babies via breast milk, the FDA says, though it’s unclear how that could affect them.
Consider the tradeoff
Your question is quite timely: CBD is increasingly popular, and as cannabis is increasingly legalized, it may seem more harmless than other marijuana components on the market.