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cbd and hemoglobin

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of powder of hemp seed on blood picture. This study was experienced on five guinea pigs that fed with normal diet (fresh vegetable and tab water), in addition were force-fed 5 g/kg/day of the powder of hemp seed for 60 days by means of an endogastric tube and syringe. At the beginning day and the termination of study day-60 the blood was taken from animals and the erythrocyte number, leukocyte number, packed cell volume (PCV), and hemoglobin concentration values were determined. The result on analysis showed that erythrocyte-count and PCV significantly decreased (p < 0.05) whereas hemoglobin concentration and leukocyte number values showed a steady decline which was not significant (P > 0.05). None of the values fell below the normal physiological range of the experimental animals. This shows that hemp seed which contains tetrahydrocannabinols as its active constituents has long term significant toxicological implication such as bone marrow suppression with respect to the concentration given on the erythrocytes of mammals. It is recommended that individuals who have anemia or immunity complication should not use hemp seed in their food preparation on regular basis.

Cbd and hemoglobin

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The former wife of Kurt Cobain, who maintains that she is still ‘100% sober’, admitted that she hasn’t always been a fan of the hemp-derived drug.

As for the future, Courtney reassured fans that she is looking forward to helping others battling chronic and acute pain once she has restored her health. “Bear with me as I start to try and have a blast and help others every pain-free day. ” she said.

Some effects such as inflammatory disorders may impair function or synthesis processes resulting in some changes on the cell morphology. For example, hemocytometer parameters like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean red blood cell volume (MCV), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are frequently used for anemia diagnosis.21, 22 Previous studies have showed that RDW is an important diagnostic and prognostic predictor of various non‐hematologic diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases,23, 24, 25 autoimmune disease26, and cancer.27 However, the exact mechanisms underlying the association between RDW and these diseases remain unknown.

White blood cells, especially neutrophils, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. During the inflammatory response, circulating neutrophils are increased and formed with relative lymphopenia, primarily due to increased apoptosis and secondarily due to increased stress hormones such as corticosteroids.39, 40 The earlier studies indicated that increased leukocyte damages the endothelium surface and causes venous thrombosis.41 Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), which are currently investigated for systemic inflammatory diseases and psychological stress, are the new predictors rising in the literature. This ratio reflects both neutrophilia, which demonstrates the acute inflammatory condition and lymphopenia, as well as physiological stress. High NLR has been reported to be a predictor for prognosis of various disorders such as cancer,42 cardiovascular diseases,43 and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.44 Hemogram panels can reflect various toxic or inflammatory systemic deteriorations, although, some subclinical influences may be masked if the calculated value is in the normal range.

2. Materials and Methods

DSM‐V (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) defines cannabis use disorder as the problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms, forming within a 12‐month period. Cannabis use disorder and the other cannabis‐related disorders include problems that are associated with substances derived from the cannabis plant and chemically similar synthetic compounds.13

Over the last 20 years, there have been considerable researches involving the cannabinoids and its importance in regulating a variety of physiological and psychological processes such as pain, feeding behavior, lipid metabolism, pleasure sensation, and immune system.1, 2, 3 Cannabinoids are usually classified as endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.4 Synthetic cannabinoids are in the group of drugs called “new psychoactive substances” and these technically synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are designer drugs that mimic the psychoactive effects of cannabis.5, 6 They were synthesized in the 1970s, and most known and common synthetic cannabinoids were coded as JWH‐series (John W. Huffman), HU‐series (Hebrew University), and AM‐series (Alexandros Makriyannis). They were first marketed as legal cannabis alternatives in Europe in the early 2000s.7 Synthetic cannabinoids are synthesized in underhand laboratories and are usually in white color like salt, mixed with acetone, and then the mixture is sprayed on dried plant materials. They are generally used like marijuana by smoking and other inhalation ways (pipes, water pipes (bongs or hookahs), cigarettes (joints or reefers), or, most recently, in the paper from hollowed out cigars (blunts)).8, 9 The prevalence of use of synthetic cannabinoid is low in the large segment of the community (<1%), but it is higher among students, youngsters, and some special groups according to the drug tests.10 Synthetic cannabinoids are widely used in Turkey; however, there is no study for the epidemiologic data. It has both similar and different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms with the major active component of marijuana (Δ(9)‐tetrahydrocannabinol‐THC).11, 12 They have hundreds of chemical types, which are usually called K2, Spice, Bonsai, Jamaica etc.13

2.2. Laboratory analysis

Effects of synthetic cannabinoids on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids.14, 15 In reference to these effects, cannabinoid ligands bind with specific G protein‐coupled receptors (CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor) and activate the endocannabinoid system. Synthetic cannabinoids have potent agonism to cannabinoid receptors differentially from THC; thus, THC has partial agonism.12 CB1 receptors influence the central nervous system and cause thermoregulation disorders, psychotic episodes, memory disorders, antiemetic activity, appetite enhancer activity, anxiety, and stress relieving activities.16, 17 CB2 receptors were found in immune system such as thymus, tonsils, marginal zone of the spleen, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and polymorphonuclear cells. According to the earlier studies in the literature, cannabinoids appear to influence immune function, especially through CB2 receptors18, 19, such as inhibition of the functions of macrophage and macrophage‐like cells, suppression of B and T lymphocytes and cytolytic activity of NK cells, proliferation and maturation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, affecting immune cells’ consolidation and chemotaxis, suppressing the antibody response in humans and animals, suppressing a variety of activities of T lymphocytes. It is well known that endocannabinoid‐anandamides have anti‐inflammatory effects but endocannabinoid 2‐Arachidonoylglycerol (2‐AG) shows agonist behavior against CB1 and CB2 receptors and it is speculated that it has pro‐inflammatory effects on immune function in contrast to anandamides20. So there are different hypotheses about the kind of effects of endocannabinoids on immune system.